The Singapore Family Physician

Back to issue Vol 48 No. 2 - Geriatric Care 2022

Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia – Assessment and Management

Mok Wai Ling Vanessa
The Singapore Family Physician Vol 48 No 2 - Geriatric Care 2022
1 March 2022
Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are defined as signs and symptoms of disturbed perception, thought content, mood or behaviour. BPSD are very common regardless of the type of dementia and is present in nearly all people with dementia over the course of their illness. A local study conducted in 2013 found the prevalence of BPSD amongst the study population suffering from dementia to be 67.9 percent. BSPD are associated with major adverse effects on daily function and quality of life; significant financial cost, higher use of healthcare facilities; and premature institutionalization. Effective assessment and management of BPSD involves the understanding of how the interplay of various factors (persons with dementia, caregivers, and environment) may cause BPSD and that interventions must be tailored to each individual. The first line of management should always be non-pharmacological interventions where possible. The ultimate goal in treatment of BPSD is to alleviate suffering, reduce caregiver burden and lower societal costs in persons with dementia.